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historical background of nepal

These Tibeto-Burmese peoples feature prominently in ancient Indian classics, suggesting that close ties bound the region almost 3,000 years ago. It is a geographically diverse, land-locked country. Each of these states controlled territory in the surrounding hill areas, with particular importance attached to the trade routes northward to Tibet and southward to India that were vital to the valley’s economy. So, I would like to create this article to give you a brief introduction to Nepal’s history. This was accomplished by the Rana family regime after 1860 on terms that were mutually acceptable, if occasionally irritating, to both. Nepal's Geography Nepal is a landlocked country lying between 800 4'- 800 12' east longitude and 260 22'- 300 4' north latitude. The Mallas perceived their responsibilities differently, however, and the great Malla ruler Jaya Sthiti (reigned c. 1382–95) introduced the first legal and social code strongly influenced by contemporary Hindu principles. The ruler of the small principality of Gorkha, campaigned to unite the various kingdoms … A pivotal moment in Nepal's history was the birth of Buddhism. Background of experiment with democracy 1950 movement for democratization With strong diplomatic support from New Delhi, the rebels accepted a settlement with the Ranas under which the sovereignty of the crown was restored and the revolutionary forces, led by the Nepali Congress (NC) party, gained an ascendant position in the administration. Most people live in the temperate hilly midlands. Gopal Dynasty (Ancient Period) One of the legacies of the Lichhavis is the Changu Narayan Temple near Bhaktapur, a UNESCO World Heritage Site (Culture), which dates back to the 5th Century. miles), sandwiched between the People's Republic of China to the north and India to the west, south, and east. Nepal also marks the collision point between Hinduism and Buddhism, between the Tibeto-Burmese language group and the Indo-European, and between Central Asian culture and Indian culture. Nepal - Nepal - Animal life: The forested areas of the Tarai are the home of tigers and leopards, gaurs (wild ox), occasional elephants and buffalo, and many deer; the deer include chital, or axis, deer (which have white-spotted bodies), sambar (a large Asiatic deer with coarse hair on the throat and strong antlers), and swamp deer. There are over 100 recognized languages in Nepal. But intermittent warfare between Tibet and China terminated this relationship, and, while there were briefly renewed contacts in subsequent centuries, these were reestablished on a continuing basis only in the late 18th century. KANCHHI, SHARMILA MALLA ON COVER OF ‘KAMANA’ IN 1985. According to Nepal's constitution, all of the national languages can be used as official languages. The position of the Shah dynasty was weakened by the fact that the two kings who ruled successively between 1777 and 1832 were minors when they ascended the throne. The towering Himalaya Mountains attest to the colossal tectonic force of the Indian Subcontinent as it plows into mainland Asia. In these periods, the Shah ruler was relegated to an honorary position without power, while effective authority was concentrated in the hands of the leading members of the dominant family. Nepal’s contacts with China began in the mid-7th century with the exchange of several missions. Ortner, Sherry B. Roughly 1 million people in Nepal speak this language. Extensive cultural, trade, and political relations developed across the Himalayas, transforming the valley from a relatively remote backwater into the major intellectual and commercial centre between South and Central Asia. Nepal covers 147,181 sq. The two largest are Indo-Aryan: Chetri (15.8% of the population) and Bahun (12.7%). The middle period in Nepalese history is usually considered coterminous with the rule of the Malla dynasty (10th–18th century) in Nepal Valley and surrounding areas. Bhaktapur Durbar Square. In the nineteenth century, the Ranas, who were ministers to the kings, assumed real power, and the Shahs became puppet rulers. The British withdrawal from India in 1947 deprived the Ranas of a vital external source of support and exposed the regime to new dangers. There are usually both Buddhist and Brahmanic Hindu versions of these various legends. Each of the other 92 castes/ethnic groups make up less than 2%. Of course, Nepal is associated with the Himalayan Range, including the world's tallest mountain, Mt. Siddharta Gautama, born on 563 B.C.E. The Lichavis are said to have migrated into Nepal from north India in around 250 A.D. It's little wonder, then, that this beautiful and diverse country has fascinated travelers and explorers for centuries. and lived until 483 B.C.E. Other common languages in Nepal include Maithili, Bhojpuri, Tharu, Gurung, Tamang, Awadhi, Kiranti, Magar, and Sherpa. Birendra introduced limited democratization again in 1980, but public protests and strikes for further reform rocked the nation in 1990, resulting in the creation of a multiparty parliamentary monarchy. Situated in the lap of Himalayas is a country with unbelievably diverse topography and culture. He became known as the Buddha, or "the enlightened one.". Archaeological evidence shows that Neolithic humans moved into the Himalayas at least 9,000 years ago. Southern Nepal, however, is a tropical monsoonal lowland, called the Tarai Plain. A Cabinet or Council of Ministers fills out the executive branch. km. Monsoon rains drench the region from June to September, with 75-150 cm (30-60 inches) of rain. The earliest points of Nepal history include reference to the Newars, the original settlers of the country. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Nepal also marks the collision point between Hinduism and Buddhism, between the Tibeto-Burmese language group and the Indo-European, and between Central Asian culture and Indian culture. The first written records date back to the Kirati people, who lived in eastern Nepal, and the Newars of the Kathmandu Valley. Very little is known about this period in the history of Nepal. Several of the kings were children when they took power, so noble families vied to be the power behind the throne. As of 2008, the former Kingdom of Nepal is a representative democracy. Nepal exports garments, carpets, and hydroelectric power. He conquered the valley in 1769 and moved his capital to Kathmandu shortly thereafter, providing the foundation for the modern state of Nepal. Nepal is primarily a Hindu country, with more than 80% of the population adhering to that faith. They established a centralized political system by absorbing dominant regional and local elites into the central administration at Kathmandu. Its territory extends roughly 500 miles (800 kilometres) from east to west and 90 to 150 miles from north to south. The total area comprises 147181 sq. Due to its extreme topography, however, it has a much wider range of climate zones than those places. The regents and the nobility competed for political power, using the young rulers as puppets; both factions wanted a monopoly of political offices and power for their families, with their rivals exterminated, exiled to India, or placed in a subordinate status. Gyanendra was forced to abdicate in 2007, and the Maoists won democratic elections in 2008. Aug 5, 2020 - History of Nepal. China and the United States are also trade partners of some significance. A new constitution was finally ratified in 1959, and a national assembly elected. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. The Newari way of life still exists today and can be seen up close throughout Bhaktapur and Bandipur. The Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama, was born in Lumbini, in southern Nepal. In 1962, though, King Mahendra (r. 1955-72) disbanded the Congress and jailed most of the government. The lowest point is Kanchan Kalan, at just 70 meters (679 feet). Nepal, country of Asia, lying along the southern slopes of the Himalayan mountain ranges. Background. Nepal lies at roughly the same latitude as Saudi Arabia or Florida. In fact, many Nepalese people combine Hindu and Buddhist practice; many temples and shrines are shared between the two faiths, and some deities are worshiped by both Hindus and Buddhists. The history of Nepal is something that every Nepalese looks back at and feels proud. In 1769, Prithvi Narayan Shah defeated the Mallas and conquered Kathmandu. Both Brahmanic Hindu and Buddhist legends relate the tales of ancient rulers from Nepal. From 1775 to 1951, Nepalese politics was characterized by confrontations between the royal family and several noble families. See also the list of monarchs of Nepal. Kirats ruled Nepal for about 1000 years (800 BC to 300 AD). 1482), divided his kingdom among his three sons, thus creating the independent principalities of Kathmandu, Patan, and Bhaktapur (Bhadgaon) in the valley. Published On 18th July 2017This video is about the origination of the word and the country Nepal. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Everest. The Licchavi dynastic chronicles, supplemented by numerous stone inscriptions, are particularly full from 500 to 700 ce; a powerful, unified kingdom also emerged in Tibet during this period, and the Himalayan passes to the north of the valley were opened. Although most of the Licchavi kings were devout Hindus, they did not impose Brahmanic social codes or values on their non-Hindu subjects. 240 members are directly elected; 335 seats are awarded by proportional representation; 26 are appointed by the Cabinet. The current president is Ram Baran Yadav; former Maoist rebel leader Pushpa Kamal Dahal (aka Prachanda) is Prime Minister. The nation-state of Nepal was the creation of King Prithvi Narayan Shah. Nepal, however, was also careful to maintain a friendly relationship with China and Tibet, both for economic reasons and to counterbalance British predominance in South Asia. In the north, the high Himalayas are extremely cold and increasingly dry as the altitude rises. kilometers (56,827 sq. Arriving from the east around the 7th or 8th century BC, these Mongoloid people are the first known rulers of the Kathmandu Valley. Nepal was also in contact with China. Nepal was ruled by about total of 28 kings during Kirat regime. The documented history of Nepal begins with the Changu Narayan temple inscription of King Manadeva I (C 464-505 A.D.) of the Lichavi dynasty. King Yalambar (the first of their 29 kings) is mentioned in the Mahabharata, the Hindu epic, but little more is known about them. The Gurkhas, led by the Shah dynasty, soon challenged the Mallas. The first Lichavi king of historical importance was Manadeva 1. By the 16th century virtually all these principalities were ruled by dynasties claiming high-caste Indian origin whose members had fled to the hills in the wake of Muslim invasions of northern India. In 1950, the push for democratic reforms began. Sketches from Nepal, Historical and Descriptive, 1880, 1974. High Religion: A Cultural and Political History of Sherpa Buddhism, 1989. The Mallas, weakened by familial dissension and widespread social and economic discontent, were no match for the great Gorkha ruler Prithvi Narayan Shah. They made considerable progress, but successive setbacks in wars with China and Tibet (1788–92), with the Sikh kingdom in the Punjab (1809), with British India (1814–16), and again with Tibet (1854–56) frustrated Nepal and set the present boundaries of the kingdom. In the early 18th century one of the principalities—Gorkha (also spelled Gurkha), ruled by the Shah family—began to assert a predominant role in the hills and even to pose a challenge to Nepal Valley. Although intrafamilial arrangements on such questions as the succession and the distribution of responsibilities and spoils were achieved, no effective national political institutions were created. The civil war between Maoist rebels and the government, which began in 1996 and ended in 2007, severely reduced Nepal's tourism industry. :: Background of Nepal :: It is believed that the first settlers of Nepal were the Kirata people and they were also the rulers of the area from almost 2,500 years before its southern regions came under the influence of the Mauryan Empire of Northern India in 250 B.C.E. This set a precedent for what became the normal pattern thereafter—Hindu kings claiming high-caste Indian origin ruling over a population much of which was neither Indo-Aryan nor Hindu. In the 3rd century BC the great Indian Emperor introduced Buddhism into Nepal. Nepal is home to nearly 29,000,000 people. The primary crops are rice, wheat, maize, and sugarcane. Temperatures reach 40°C in April and May. IT STILL IS A LEADING CINE … In fact, the Thapa family controlled Nepal 1806-37, while the Ranas took power 1846-1951. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Early History: Available evidence of Nepal’s distant past is scant, but the earliest inhabitants were likely of Tibeto-Burman ethnicity and lived in small settlements with little political centralization. This is a timeline of Nepalese history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Nepal and its predecessor states. In the 6th century BC, Prince Siddhartha Gautama was born into the Sakya royal family of Kapilavastu, near Lumbini, later embarking on a path of meditation and thought that led him to enlighten… Nepal’s rich prehistory consists mainly of the legendary traditions of the Newar, the indigenous community of Nepal Valley (now usually called Kathmandu Valley). In the 4th or 5th century A.D., the Licchavi dynasty moved into Nepal from the Indian plain. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. The British conquest of India in the 19th century posed a serious threat to Nepal—which expected to be another victim—and left the country with no real alternative but to seek an accommodation with the British to preserve its independence. See more ideas about nepal, history, vintage. Nepalese Historical Personalities Find out more about the greatest Nepalese Historical Personalities, including Gyanendra of Nepal, Birendra of Nepal, Jung Bahadur Rana, Mahendra of Nepal and Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev. The country might seem like a small piece of land, but it encloses varieties from all around the world. There are usually both Buddhist and Brahmanic Hindu versions of these various legends. In the early 7th Century, Amshuvarma, the first Thakuri king took over the throne from his father-in-law who was a Lichhavi. It is a landlocked country located between India to the east, south, and west and the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north. The first civilizations in Nepal, which flourished around the 6th century B.C., were confined to the fertile Kathmandu Valley where the present-day capital of the same name is located. Both versions are accepted indiscriminately in the festivals associated with legendary events, a tribute to the remarkable synthesis that has been achieved in Nepal between the two related but divergent value systems. Nepal was known to the Ancient Indians. The Kingdom of Nepal, a small Hindu-majority nation wedged between India and China in the Himalayas, became a multiparty federal republic in 2008. Smaller minority religions include Islam, with about 4%; the syncretic religion called Kirat Mundhum, which is a blend of animism, Buddhism, and Saivite Hinduism, at about 3.5%; and Christianity (0.5%). The central hill-lands, including the Kathmandu and Pokhara valleys, have a temperate climate and are also influenced by the monsoons. In 1972, Mahendra's son Birendra succeeded him. 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